Working Together to Overcome Hurdles

Imagine 2 students getting ready to run on a track.  One student looks ahead and sees a pretty clear path, maybe a few speed bumps or a few dips and pot holes to avoid.  The other student sees hurdle after hurdle after hurdle.

My questions for you are:

  • Who will likely get to the end faster?
  • Who will likely be more exhausted?
  • Who will likely be more frustrated?
  • Who will not want to come back to the track tomorrow?


This is my analogy for the struggles students face when they are going through school with a learning, attention or social difficulty or disability.  Students with difficulties or disabilities have to work harder and take more time to do the same work than students who do not have the difficulties.  As a psychologist, I work with the student, family, school, and any professionals to overcome those hurdles.  First, I help figure out what interventions will help students develop specific skills in those harder areas.  Second, I work with the student, family and school to figure out specific ways to make learning less exhausting and frustrating and help students feel more confident and empowered.

How do I do this?

  • I get to know each student individually and learn about his or her strengths and difficulties
  • I work to understand the environments the student lives and learns in
  • I learn about the goals the student, family and school have
  • I connect this information to what research says are proven ways to help the student
  • I work together with the student, family and school to develop an educational plan to put these proven ways into action and program for success.
  • In some cases, I work to develop a comprehensive and official plan with the school, such as a 504 Plan or an IEP (Special Education Plan). I work to make the plan meaningful and powerful for the student all the way through school.


A professional evaluation is always helpful when families are worried about their children’s learning or social and emotional development to identify concerns and strengths and ways to lower and overcome hurdles to promote success.  I have helped students to overcome hurdles when they struggle with reading (Dyslexia), writing (Dysgraphia), math (Dyscalculia), attention and ADHD, and social and emotional needs.  By looking at each student as an individual and working together with students, parents, educators and other professionals, I can help reduce those hurdles, making the “daily race” feel a little less tiring, and helping the “runner” feel a lot more successful.

If you are ready to find out how to help your child overcome some of the hurdles, give me a call. 720-432-1336

Past Blogs

Eureka! I Have a Solution!

Oh No! Why? More on Problem Solving

The Calm Instead of the Storm


I Feel… You Feel… Empathy, Compassion, and Inclusion

I want to start with a story about some third graders I watched at a birthday party.  Picture a sunny day with green grass, a tall tree, and 15 children talking and jumping excitedly while parents strung a piñata to a thick branch.  It was time to break the piñata and all the excited children formed a line.  Each one giggled when they were blindfolded and spun around several times.  They all joined in cheering each person as they tried their luck.  However, in the background was one of the children who was in a wheelchair with a broken leg.  While the adults asked him to participate, he opted out.  He enjoyed watching the others swing wildly hitting both the air and the piñata.  Finally, one of the children broke the piñata and the candy fell to the ground.  All the children flew toward the candy and scooped up as much as they could find.  The adults were trying to gather some for the child in the wheel chair, but before they could collect a good amount, one child ran with his huge bounty to the child in the wheel chair.  He gave it all to him, smiled and pushed him to the next activity.  I still cry when I remember this act of empathy, compassion and inclusion.

What is Empathy?

Empathy is a powerful word.  It really means stepping into someone’s shoes and understanding their feelings.  Empathy helps us care for our family members, friends, co-workers, and people we meet each day.  It gives us the power to help those in need and to reduce or share someone’s hardship.  It reduces bullying and brings individuals together in a community.  Empathy starts when someone reads or understands our feelings and then connects with us by showing caring emotions.  Compassion starts when someone offers help.  Empathy can be expressed when someone needs help, is hurt, has strong negative emotions or is even excited and happy.  The first step to empathy is being able to read another person’s emotions.  To start to read emotions we look at someone’s facial and body cues.

Think about all the times during the day you read the facial and body cues of others.  I do when I wake in the morning and check on how my children are feeling.  I do when I give my children a direction or when I say their chores are complete and they can go outside to play.  I do when I see a co-worker and we are speaking on a serious issue or when someone shares an event and experience with me.  I read facial and body cues to know what someone else is thinking and feeling.  When I understand someone’s feelings, I can be a better friend and we can have a stronger relationship.  When I know how someone feels, I can then have empathy for his or her experiences, which means we have a connection and we are more likely to help each other.  When we have a better understanding of each other, we are more likely to lift each other up – true for children and adults.  Just think about the third graders.

Our children learn how to read facial and body cues by watching us do it.  They also learn how to show empathy by watching us do it.  They start to understand other’s emotions in preschool and build on it through childhood.  Building these skills will reduce bullying and will increase acceptance and community building.  We can help our children practice at any age and have fun with it!

A Few Fun Games to Try at Home

Younger Children:

  • Feeling Charades: Have family members pick feelings out of a hat and act those feelings out. Make sure you use your whole body to act those out.  Then you can help your children see both facial and body changes with the feelings.  You also can add in new feeling vocabulary to the hat as you see success (add in exuberant for excited or melancholy or morose for sad and unhappy).  You extend feeling vocabulary and understanding feelings at the same time.
  • Mirror Mirror: Have a hand-held mirror and ask your children to make a facial expression in the mirror. They may really like to see what they look like with different emotions on their faces.  This practice will help him then recognize when others are showing those emotions.  Often children like to make lots of faces into the mirror anyway, so this could be a fun way to connect labels to those faces.
  • Helpful Word List: Have your children develop helpful word lists at home for when they see someone is hurt or when someone is sad or feeling left out. Remember to let children know to use these words when they are in safe situations (for example, not with a stranger).  Helpful words might be:
    • Are you OK?
    • Do you need help?
    • How are you?
    • Do you want to play?

Older Children and Teenagers:

  • Feelings Jeopardy: Have a guessing game where you either act out a situation or talk about a situation and then ask what emotion someone would feel in that situation. An example might be, “A friend forgot that the math test was today until he walked in class and saw the teacher pass out papers.  His face changed from relaxed to…”  Your child would answer, “What is really worried or panicked?”  You can add in, “What can you do to offer help or help him feel he can make it through?”  This extension helps older children begin to see how they can make good decisions for themselves and their friends.
  • What Would You Think or Need?: You can pose different questions to older children and teenagers about what they might feel or think in different situations.  You can also ask them what they would need from a friend.  Help them know that what they think and need is similar to what their friends might think and need.  You can use situations you read in books or see in the media.  You can pause TV shows or stop reading in the book when characters are at a point you think showing empathy would be helpful.  Ask your children, “What would you think or need if this were you?”  You can ask a follow up question like, “So if you were his friend, what would you do to help?”  Older children and adolescents will also begin to form ideas for positive decision making and helpful behaviors that can keep themselves and others safe.
  • How Would You?: You can modify the What Would You Think or Need game to specifically ask about situations where someone is excluded or is teased or bullied.  Use media to help initiate the conversation.  Pause books or TV shows when you see an incident of teasing or bullying and ask, “How would you help the person in need?  How would you offer support?”  Asking children and teenagers these questions gets them thinking about how difficult it can be and how they may act in these hard situations.  Offer praise for any ideas your children think of.  Help them think of ideas too, they will need to know which adults at school and in the community can be helpful and how to talk with them.  They will also need guidance to stay safe in tricky situations.

Good Old-Fashioned Conversation:

We can help reinforce empathy and understanding other people’s emotions by talking about situations at home.  You can talk about a situation where someone noticed your feelings or you felt empathy for someone else.  Talk through the situation and how it felt to connect with another person.  Talk about when you saw your children show empathy and tell them you were proud of them.  Remind them that feeling empathy for others helps them support others and come to the aide of others in need.  We want our children to stand up for what they believe and what others need.  I was so impressed with the third grader who shared his candy cache and included the other child in the wheel chair.  He knew what his friend needed by understanding his emotions and stepping into his shoes.

Recognizing emotions in ourselves and others helps us with building relationships and connecting with others.  Let’s practice with our children so they can continue to connect with friends and understand how others feel.  Let’s build empathy, compassion and inclusion.


Past Posts:


My Kid Said What?!?!

The Calm Instead of the Storm

The EYES Have It

Creating Connection

The EYES Have It! A Strong Connection


Last night when I was saying goodnight to my teenager, I was reminded of the importance of connecting individually with him.  Sounds easy to remember, but I think we all have a tendency to forget and let everyday life get in the way.  Our digital technology can be a definite bonus because the speed of information is quick and we can connect with others easily.  However, we sometimes let it interrupt our personal conversations and time with people important to us.

What happened last night

I went to say goodnight to my teenager in his room.  He had a very active day with a long run in the morning, then a basketball game, and then a team practice.  He was exhausted to say the least.  Because he was so tired, he did not have too much to share at dinner or even before he went to bed.  However, when he was lying down and the lights were off, he starting telling me about a funny event from the day.  The story was nothing really important in and of itself, just a funny story.  At that same moment, I heard my phone beep with a text.  I knew the text was important and contained information I needed to know.  I had to fight the temptation of turning my attention to the familiar beep.  However, I continued to talk with my son and listen to the funny story.  At the end of the story, we said goodnight.

I left the room – thinking…

  • I was tempted to check the phone while he was talking. BUT
  • I was glad I connected with my son because every time I do, he knows I am there to listen. AND
  • If anything big ever happens, I want him to know I will be there to listen and help.


The real connection

It is so easy to allow distractions to pull our attention away from our conversations with our children.  We can so easily tell ourselves that we can read the text or email at the same time as listening to our children, but they notice when we are not making eye contact or when we randomly say, “uh huh” to their statements.  I know I notice when I am talking to someone and they pull their phone out and say, “Hold on a moment.”  It brings up the question, am I as important as the person on the phone?  We have to make sure we put the distractions away and really connect with our children.  The benefits: a) they will internalize that they matter to us, b) they will know we will listen to them if they have a big problem or issue, and c) they will know we will be there for them when they need it.  As an added bonus, we will be modeling how to have a good conversation with others in the age of digital technology and interruptions.

Here is a little reminder about what makes individual connection with our children work.

Literally, the EYES have it

Eye Contact (Make eye contact)

Your Time (Stop other activity and face your children)

Empathy (Show that you are feeling for them as they tell their story)

Special Attention (Don’t let other distractions, like beeps on the phone, pull you away)


My son’s story was not really important, but listening and connecting with him sure was!


Committee on Integrating the Science of Early Childhood Development (2000).  From neurons to neighborhoods:  The science of early childhood development.  Washington, DC:  National Academy Press.

Previous Posts:

Oh No! Why? More on Problem Solving


My Kid Said What?!?!

The Calm Instead of The Storm

Oh No! Why? More on Problem Solving

Imagine this, you are walking down the hallway at work with your files in your arms, and your co-worker, Harry, bumps into you.  Your files go flying with paper scattering everywhere on the floor!  Now you will be late to the meeting and look unorganized!  Frustration and maybe a little bit of anger towards Harry creeps in.  When something like this happens to us as adults, we take a brief minute and think, “Did Harry just mean to do that or was it an accident?”

Turns out this question helps us to analyze a problem or event before we assign blame and get angry, sad, or frustrated.  This question can reduce angry responses when these types of problems happen.  Now hopefully Harry noticed what happened and will help you with your papers, but he may just keep on walking.  How we think about and define problems means a lot.  How do we help our children ask these questions?

  • First things first, we need to help our children calm down when they have a problem. Our brain can think much better when we are calm.  For ideas on how to calm see my other blog post The Calm Instead of the Storm.  I know I say this all the time, but it really is extremely important.
  • Then we need to help cue or signal to our children that they need to think about why the problem happened. Use cue words, like Think Why, to remind them now is the time to decide why the problem occurred.  They will need guidance and help with this process.  You may need to lead the discussion:  “Do you really think your friend meant for that to happen?  I wonder if it was an accident.  Here is why I think it might have been an accident…”
  • Then help them think of ways to solve their problem or handle the event. Again, they will need your assistance and probably a cue like, Think How.  You will find yourself helping them to come up with ideas and you may even guide the steps for solving the problem.  You also can refer to my Eureka! blog post for practicing solving problems.
  • Remember to use praise when children pause and Think Why and How. Let them know they worked hard to solve the problem or handle the event.  Tell them you see them growing up when they go through this process.

An additional helpful hint:

I often suggest for parents to have a picture guide or reminder list for solving problems at home.  This guide should be kept in a place easy to reach in a time of need.  You also can use it after the fact when you are discussing a problem and how it may have been better to solve it.  Have your child make the guide with their own pictures, use pictures they found in magazines or electronic images, or have them write their own guide using keywords.  Here is a sample with pictures and words (you will note that the pictures do not have to be fancy, just something your child will look at and understand):


Have fun with making your guide and remember that learning problem-solving skills takes a lot of practice and support.  It’s ok if it takes a while to learn how to do these steps!

Resource for this and other problem-solving blogs:

Crick, N. R., & Dodge, K. A. (1994).  A review and reformation of social information-processing mechanisms in children’s social adjustment. Psychological Bulletin, 115, 74-101.


Previous Blogs:


My Kid Said What?!?!?

The Calm Instead of the Storm

Creating Connection

Phonemic what? How to Support Your Child’s Reading

Flip-flopping Negative to Positive

Eureka! I Have a Solution!

Ever get that feeling of frustration when you had a problem and weren’t thinking of solutions?  Did you know that anger and frustration decrease when we are able to think of ways to solve problems?  Well, it’s true – the more ways we can think of to solve problems, the less angry and frustrated we are.  Problems can be anything: social, friendship, academic, work related… whatever!  When we can think of ideas, we are more able to move forward past the problem and have a better attitude.

You might be asking, “How can I help my children learn how to think of solutions to problems?”  Here are three good ways we can help children learn how to do this.

  • Model (I’d like to reference my last blog post My Kid Said What?!?!? on Overt Modeling). The more we show children how we search for ideas to solve problems, the more likely they are to try it themselves.
  • Practice thinking of solutions with your children. Capitalize on opportunities to think through problems.  When you are watching a TV show or reading a book with your children and the characters run into a problem, pause and ask your children to think of ways it can be solved.  Have them think of multiple ways to solve one problem.  You also can ask them if the solution the characters came up with will actually solve the problem.
  • Cue or say that it is time for them to think about ways to solve problems. You can have a code word with your children that helps them know when it is time to think of solutions.  They will need help to generate ideas and to figure out if some ideas are better than others.  Be Aware – you may have to wait for your children to calm down before they are ready to think about solutions (if you need ideas on how to help your children calm down, please see my blog post The Calm Instead of the Storm).  We always think of more ideas when we are calm.

Learning how to solve problems helps to reduce our feelings of anger and frustration.  With practice and guidance, children can have many proud Eureka! moments with successful problem-solving.



Previous Posts:


Creating Connection

Phonemic what? How to Support Your Child’s Reading


My Kid Said What?!?!?!?

We know children learn by watching what we do every day.  I remember some funny stories of when my children imitated my not-so-wonderful moments, like yelling at the slow truck in front of us at the stop light (oops).  However, we actually are able to turn their imitation of our behaviors into moments of positive learning and skill building!

I often describe how to do this when I work with parents in my practice, and I call it Overt Modeling or Purposeful Modeling.  This technique helps to teach any kind of skill to children of any age.  I briefly mentioned this technique in my last post about Calming but thought that giving it more description could be helpful.

  • What does it look like? It is acting, over describing, and using open self-talk so our children can hear.  It is picking one event a day (or more) and openly talking about how you as the adult are thinking through the situation so children can hear you use all the skills you hope for them to use in a similar situation.
  • When can you use it? Overt Modeling can be used anytime when you would like children to learn how to use a skill you’d like them to learn.
    • Calming: You might talk through taking breaths, stretching or taking a break and how it makes your body and mind feel calmer and helps you solve a problem.
    • Social skills: You might talk through looking at the face and body of another person to know how they feel.  You might say that you greeted someone you were nervous to talk to by saying, “Hello.”
    • Problem-solving: You might talk through all the ideas you came up with to solve a problem and how you settled on one of them because it would be the best for everyone.
    • Organizing: You might talk about how you were glad you packed everything for your day the night before because it helped everyone get going on time.
    • Making mistakes: You might talk about mistakes you made and how you worked to fix them, how they ended up not mattering or how the mistake actually was better than the original plan.
  • An example of talking about something from your day: If a child feels everything that happens to them is because someone else wanted to hurt or tease them (but you know that is not true), then an Overt Modeling situation may sound like this:

“I was walking down the hall today at work and Jim turned and bumped into me making my coffee spill all over the floor!  He didn’t even offer to help, just ran by me!  It really made me mad.  BUT I knew had to think through this.  I asked myself, did Jim mean to do this to me? No, it was an accident.  I think he actually was trying to quickly get to a meeting.  I knew this because he ran down the hall to the meeting room and entered quickly.  I am so glad I thought about if Jim really meant to spill my coffee.  It saved me from getting really angry.”

  • Another example of talking about something in the moment: You can use situations in the moment too.  If you are trying to help build your child’s comfort with making mistakes, make one and then talk through how it doesn’t matter or how the outcome is actually better than it might have been without the mistake.

“Oh Goodness! I forgot the chocolate chips for the cookies!  I know we really wanted those cookies today.  I know that was a mistake, but I wonder if there is another idea we can come up with that will make really yummy cookies.  I know, we have cinnamon and sugar! Let’s sprinkle it on each cookie instead.  That will be yummy too!  This mistake actually ended up good – a new yummy cookie recipe!”

Overt Modeling is one of my favorite techniques to talk about with families because they can work in moments to learn skills all through the day.  The end results are positive: children learn these new skills and families build stronger relationships because they are talking and learning together.  Then instead of saying, “My kid said what?!” we can say, “Ah, my kid said what we have been working on!”


Previous Posts:

The Calm Instead of the Storm

Creating Connection

Phonemic what? How to Support Your Child’s Reading

Flip-flopping Negative to Positive

Relationship Lessons from my Cats


The Calm Instead of the Storm

I often have parents ask about ways they can help their child calm down when they have big feelings that are overwhelming.  I hear parents say, “I know he is angry or upset, but I can’t help him because he can’t move past his feelings.”  We all know we have the right to feel whatever feelings we have, but learning to control those emotions helps us learn ways to handle problems and communicate our thoughts and needs.  We know we are better able to think and problem solve when we are calm, not when we are angry or overwhelmed.  I listed a few helpful hints that I like to share:

  1. Find The Calm:

a. Give your child a space to calm down. But make going to the space a positive thing, not a punishment (this is not a Time Out space). Maybe the space is a chair in the living room, a bed, a small nook near the kitchen.  The space can be different for all families.

b. The quiet space can have a soft or comforting toy, stress balls, fidget toys, music, white noise, anything that might be comforting.

c. Let your child have a few minutes there to calm down.

2. Practice The Calm

a. I talk about practicing the calm just like we practice basketball lay-ups or baseball pitching. We have to practice lay-ups over and over so we can use those skills in a high-pressure game.  Same thing for learning how to calm ourselves down, we need to practice so we can use those skills when the pressure gets high.

b. Calming can be breathing, stretching, going to the Calm Space or any mix of those! I put some resources at the end of this post so you can see what might be helpful for you.

c. We need to practice these strategies when we are calm. We can’t expect to have these calming skills if we only try them in the heat of the moment. We must practice them often when we are calm.  Some families practice right at bed time, some practice before they read together, some practice before dinner.  Pick a quiet and calm time and add in some breathing or stretching at that time.  Not only does this help with learning how to calm, it also helps families build strong relationships – an added bonus!

d. Remember to praise The Calm!

3. Model The Calm

a. I always think that children need to see us as parents and guardians as using The Calm when we get upset. The more we model it, the better.  I call it overt modeling.  Make sure to show your child how you calm yourself down when you are upset.  Talk about how you need to do that too!

b. If you really want to make sure to model how to calm, then think up an issue and talk through it. Here is an example.  “I burnt the meatloaf! I can’t believe it.  I need to calm down, I am angry at myself!  I think I will take a minute and sit down on the couch, it is my calm space.  I need to breathe slowly too.  I am going to breathe into the count of 4 and out to the count of 4 a few times.  Now I feel a lot better.  I need to solve this problem and think.  Hmmm I know, we can use gravy and ketchup and it will taste just fine!  I am glad I calmed down because then I solved the problem.”

Emotions are wonderful because they help us enjoy experiences, know when something is wrong, or connect with others.  But when emotions overwhelm us, they take away our ability to think and problem solve.  Learning how to calm helps us think of ideas and solutions to solve problems and to communicate to express our needs in a thoughtful way.



Reaching Higher Educational Center

Belknap, M. (2006).  Stress relief for kids: Taming your dragons. Duluth, MN.:  Whole Person Associates.

Shapiro, L. E. & Spague, R. K. (2009). The relaxation & stress reduction workbook for kids: Help for children to cope with stress, anxiety & transitions. Oakland, CA:  Instant Help Books, Harbinger Publishers, Inc.

Previous Posts:

Creating Connection

Phonemic what? How to Support Your Child’s Reading

Flip-flopping Negative to Positive

Relationship Lessons from my Cats




Creating Connnection

Meaningful connections and the feeling of belonging can mean the world to children and adolescents.  Let’s think about ourselves.  When we feel we are wanted, we want to be there.  When we feel we are needed, we want to contribute.  When we feel cared for by others, we want to care for others.  Research shows that students who feel connected at school or activities are more likely to stay in school, finish school, feel safe at school and help school feel safe.

How do we help our children feel connected to others?

Some ideas:

Ask your child for help and give them chores: As parents we definitely need help.  When we ask for help, our child knows his or her contribution to the family is important and needed.  Yes, we will hear complaints, but easing your child into chores and helping promotes responsibility as well as feeling needed and wanted in the family.

Help them find positive environments: When you try out different activities, search out the activities that match your child’s interests and personality.  Check in with the adults supervising the program to know what your child is doing if you are not there.  Check in with your child to gather their feelings about the activities.  Finding a good match with the right activities can help foster that feeling of belonging.  Talking with you about how activities feel can help your child learn when something is comfortable and when something does not feel like a fit (a lifelong skill).

Talk to others who see your child: Connect with your child’s teachers to see if your child is connected at school.  Ask what your child does in work groups.  Find out if your child feels comfortable contributing to groups.  Ask if your child finds company during free time.  Ask what your child chooses during recess.  These questions will shed light on your child’s connection with peers and daily events.  They will also give you ideas about possible interest areas for your child, which can help you choose meaningful activities.

Talk to your child about their daily activities:  Taking time to connect with your child about his or her day builds connection at home and checks in on his or her perceptions of connection to peers and teachers.  Remember to make eye contact and put away any distractions, so they know you are really listening.  Once you get a response to your first question, ask a follow-up question to get a little more information.  You can ask:

  • What was one funny thing that happened?
  • What was for lunch?
  • What did you play at recess?
  • What did you do at choice time?
  • Tell me how band (or a class that is fun or a favorite) went.
  • What was one interesting thing that you learned today?

We all want to feel needed and wanted.  When we have a connection to others, we have reason to be there and to care.  Let’s create a connection with our children to show them how wanted, needed, and cared for they are.  Let’s give them the tools to create those connections themselves.


Phonemic what? How to Support Your Child’s Reading

I work frequently with families who have questions about their children’s reading development and how they can support their child with reading.  It is important to me to help give answers to parents whether I am just providing general information or working with individual families to examine their children’s reading development.  Two questions I hear often are:

  1. What is Phonemic Awareness?

Phonemic awareness is hearing and identifying sounds in our language and knowing that words are made of sounds and syllables.  While phonemic awareness is not letter-knowledge, it helps us know and hear sound similarities and differences that are represented in written words.  It helps us get ready for reading and mapping sounds to letters and visual symbols.  If we can hear and discriminate similarities and differences between language sounds and hear the individual sounds in spoken language, then we have an easier time learning that letters represent certain sounds in our written word.

Examples of phonemic awareness:

  • hearing that SUN starts with a similar sound as SAND
  • hearing the three separate sounds in SUN: S-U-N
  • hearing that FUN and SUN rhyme or end with the same sounds

All of these examples have to do with hearing sounds, not reading the words.

2. How do I help my child develop this skill?

Research indicates that phonemic awareness can be taught and that learning these skills (at any age) helps with learning to read (and reading also helps these skills develop).  Here are three fun and easy games that you can play to help your child hear sounds in our language.  Just play them for a few minutes each time.  Keep them fun and easy.  You can do these games anywhere – at the dinner table, in the car, or walking over to a friend’s house.

A. Rhyming:

Have fun playing rhyming games.  Ask your child to rhyme with words you give them (make it easy when you start).  Your child can even make up words to rhyme.  “What rhymes with SKY? Fly! My! Ty! Zy! Ny!”  Don’t forget to demonstrate first.  Have your child give you a word and you provide a rhyme.  You can support hearing rhymes by reading rhyming books to your child and commenting about the rhymes you hear when you read.

B. Sound detective:

Ask your child if two words sound the same at the start of the words.  “Let’s play detective.  Do SUN and SAND start with the same sound? SSSSSun, SSSSSand?  What about SUN and MAPSSSSSun, MMMMMap?”  Don’t forget to demonstrate first!  After your child is hearing sound similarities and differences at the beginning of words, you can ask them about the end of the words like TOP and DROP, or TOP and TIP.  You can even move to sound blends like DROP and DRIVE or FREEZE and FRAME.  Point out any sound similarities when reading together or even just in conversation.

C. Guess my word:

You can play a word game where you say individual sounds in words and your child has to guess what the word is.  Your child may need time to learn this skill.  An example is: “Guess my word – S – U – N.  SUN!”  Say the isolated sounds, not the letters.  Keep the words small and pause just slightly between saying each sound.


You can find children’s books that support phonemic awareness at: